The primary philosophy behind the residual income model is that the portion of a stock's price that is above or below book value is attributable to the expertise of the company's management. Accordingly, it becomes a handy tool for calculating what the "real" value of a stock is. It is important to note, however, that analysts should pay special attention to incorporating changes in book value per share caused by share buybacks and other unusual events that may distort the analysis.
Among the various market multiples, residual income models are most closely related to the price to book value (P/B) ratio because the justified P/B is directly linked to expected future residual income. This can be seen by observing the single stage model. If ROE is greater than the required return on equity, the second term (the present value of residual income) will be positive, the market will be greater than book value, and the justified P/B ratio will be greater than one.
1. Spouse income - If the husband/wife is also earning, it acts as a buffer for both of them. In today’s economic environment, job security is a thing of the past. Having the spouse earn is a big positive. This second income can be used towards the burden of household expenses, towards investing for the future, and as a back-up to the first income etc. Even if the spouse wants to work from home, today there are options - freelance work, part-time work, flexi-hour work, tuitions, cooking/catering, designing, etc can all be done from home. And money is good too.
In equity valuation, residual income represents an economic earnings stream and valuation method for estimating the intrinsic value of a company's common stock. The residual income valuation model values a company as the sum of book value and the present value of expected future residual income. Residual income attempts to measure economic profit, which is the profit remaining after the deduction of opportunity costs for all sources of capital.