If you happen to own a home, apartment, or office space, you have a great source for generating passive income at your fingertips. Peer-to-peer property rental site Airbnb has made it extremely easy for real estate owners to make extra money by renting out their homes to guests for short durations. If you're uncomfortable with such a model, you can also use sites like NestAway to find tenants for your property without having to deal with brokers.
If you’re looking for a way to begin gradually replacing your income, these are just some of the best ways you can do it as a physician. Remember the idea of gradual retirement? Passive income streams like the ones mentioned here are perfect ways to allow you to spend more time with family, enjoy your day job more, and, of course, make a little money while you’re at it.
There are many success stories you’ll run into of what it takes to generate multiple streams of income. However, one of the most important tips is to take on multiple clients. One client being your income source is bad news. They could voluntarily or involuntarily leave you high and dry. For instance, their business may begin to suffer and they no longer have the funds to pay you. Well, that is your income stream; gone without warning.
Once I started blogging and connecting with other bloggers in the personal finance space, I saw how much potential was out there. And honestly, how much money some bloggers were making really shocked me. I distinctly remember one blogger telling me his website was making $30,000 per month….and this was 2009! To say this blew my mind is an understatement of epic proportions.
Ask yourself how many hours a week do you spend sitting in silence, coming up with an idea and working on your idea? We’re so busy with our jobs that our childhood creativity sadly vanishes at some point in our lives. There are food bloggers who clear over $15,000 a month. There are lifestyle bloggers who make over $10,000 a month while living in Thailand. And there are even personal finance bloggers who’ve sold their sites for multi-millions.
Our favorite platform for this is RealtyMogul because you get the flexibility to invest as little as $1,000, but can also participate in REITs and private placements – typically not offered to the public. Investors can fund real estate loans to gain passive income or buy an equity share in a property for potential appreciation. Their platform is open to both accredited and non-accredited investors.
I came across your site a few weeks ago and love to read whenever i get some spare time. Your content is not only informative but relatively easy to understand (even though i have to sometimes read it several times) for someone that does not have a financial background like myself. My question is regarding muni bonds. Any simple rule to picking muni bonds that pay a dividend and are relatively low risk? I am working on building my passive income stream and am interested in low risk investments that can still generate a consistent passive income stream.
Once I started blogging and connecting with other bloggers in the personal finance space, I saw how much potential was out there. And honestly, how much money some bloggers were making really shocked me. I distinctly remember one blogger telling me his website was making $30,000 per month….and this was 2009! To say this blew my mind is an understatement of epic proportions.

I wanted to specifically call out one particular strategy within equity investing that bears mentioning – dividend growth investing is when you focus on stocks that not only pay a dividend but have a history of strong dividend growth. When I was first building my portfolio of individual stocks, I focused on buying companies with a history of dividends, a history of strong growth, and financials that supported a continuation of both.
It is interesting to note that these models, like EVA and MVA, usually apply the concept of residual income to the measurement of managerial effectiveness and executive compensation. However, for the exam we're most interested in the equity valuation applications of residual income models. Residual income models have also been proposed as a method to measure goodwill impairment.
Typically, the above formula will be applied such that the company is assumed to achieve maturity, or "constant growth". (Note that the value will remain identical: the adjustment is a "telescoping" device). Here, analysts commonly employ the Perpetuity Growth Model to calculate the corresponding terminal value[3] (although various, more formal approaches are also applied[4]). Then, assuming long-run, "constant", growth {\displaystyle g} from year {\displaystyle m} , the terminal value is
Typically, the above formula will be applied such that the company is assumed to achieve maturity, or "constant growth". (Note that the value will remain identical: the adjustment is a "telescoping" device). Here, analysts commonly employ the Perpetuity Growth Model to calculate the corresponding terminal value[3] (although various, more formal approaches are also applied[4]). Then, assuming long-run, "constant", growth {\displaystyle g} from year {\displaystyle m} , the terminal value is
I’ve never invested in real estate (except to live in), but am always intrigued by communities like FS who seem to have such a passion for it. My intrigue stems back to my earlier comments that the long term trends in appreciation in real estate are simply not very competitive versus equities, despite what Robert Kiyosaki had to say in his book, Rich Dad, Poor Dad.

I actually spent a year and a half working as an affiliate marketer (mostly selling drumming related products – lessons, kits ect). 5 years on and one of my one page sites (which I’ve not touched) still nets me about $150 a month. I won’t be retiring off that but only really now appreciate the reverse pyramid approach to entrepreneurship (working for nothing initially but later being paid without effort!)
Try going to our post: 20 Sites That Will Pay You to Read Books: https://wellkeptwallet.com/get-paid-to-read-books/. Even though editing is not what this post is about, there are several companies that might do book editing such as Kirkus: https://www.kirkusreviews.com/editing-services/get-started/marketing/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=%2Bbook%20%2Bediting&utm_campaign=Editorial-ES I hope this helps and good luck on your book!
Passive income differs from earned income and portfolio income in a variety of ways. Passive income is generally defined as a stream of income earned with little effort, and it is referred to as progressive passive income when there is little effort needed from the individual receiving the passive income in order to grow the stream of income. Examples of passive income include rental income and any business activities in which the earner does not materially participate during the year.
Passive income is the holy grail of income generation, allowing you to earn money on autopilot, without sacrificing any additional time to produce those funds. And, time, as we all know, is life’s greatest equalizer. No human being on earth, no matter their race, gender, creed, color of their skin, religious beliefs, net worth, occupation or geographic location, has more time than the next human being. We all have the same amount of time in a day. 24 hours. That’s it.
Launching a side business or figuring out how to invest your money when you’re strapped for time isn’t easy, but the payoff makes it all worthwhile. The money you earn from passive income will undoubtedly have you well on your way to achieving your financial goals and that much closer to true financial freedom. If you’re wondering how your finances currently stack up, find out where you stand financially. No matter the result, Turbo’s personalized advice will help get you where you want to be.
Mr Raman, age 32, works for a bank as a senior manager. He earns Rs 50,000 per month take-home salary. His wife works as a school teacher earning Rs 15,000 per month. Raman had, earlier in his career, sold life insurance policies as an agent earning roughly Rs 50,000 per annum (Rs 4200 per month) as renewal commission every year from those policies sold. Raman has a flat of his own plus a small investment property in neighbouring suburb giving him Rs 15,000 p.m. rent. Raman has a decent small savings portfolio giving him an interest of Rs 5,000 per month. Raman believes he will increase his savings income from Rs 5000 to 15,000 in 5 years time as he plans to save all of his annual bonus (Rs 1.5 lacs per annum) every year.
When you invest in a dividend-paying stock, you are buying a share of the company and you literally become part-owner of that business. As the company grows and generates extra cash that it doesn’t necessarily want to re-invest, it might decide to return some of the extra cash to the shareholders in the form of dividends. And because you own a fraction of the company, you will receive a portion of the cash!
Hi, in as much as the article in this blog appears to be a source for information for us folks who are perhaps a little older (and wiser) would it be possible to point a person who is extremely sceptical about earning extra income.. other than worked 9-5 for? ( that person of course is me). Who now in a few years should be retiring, problem is, no money there to retire on. So a second source of income/investing is critical to my wife and I.
Nobody gets early FI investing in bonds, CD’s, or even stocks unless they make a huge income or are extremely frugal or a combination of both. Paper assets just don’t provide enough returns. Business income can be great but it is typically not as semi-passive as I would like and there is a relatively high failure rate. That is if you can monetize an ideal to begin with. RE investing needs to be higher ranked IMO as a way that the “average guy” can become FI.

The rationale for the residual income approach is that it recognizes the cost of equity capital in the measurement of income. Accounting net income includes the cost of debt (i.e. Interest expense), but does not reflect dividends or other equity capital related funding costs. This means that accounting income may overstate returns from the perspective of equity investors, conversely, residual income explicitly deducts all capital costs.

Once I started blogging and connecting with other bloggers in the personal finance space, I saw how much potential was out there. And honestly, how much money some bloggers were making really shocked me. I distinctly remember one blogger telling me his website was making $30,000 per month….and this was 2009! To say this blew my mind is an understatement of epic proportions.
Rentals, just like stocks, throw off cash. With rentals we call that cash “rent”, and with stocks we call it dividends. A significant difference however is that the S&P 500 has appreciated at ~6% per year (above inflation) for the last 100 years…..Real Estate has had almost 0 growth above inflation. So are rents higher than dividends? Maybe, maybe not. But unless you got one heck of a deal, the delta in rent over dividends will have a very tough time making up for the 6% per year difference in appreciation.

Peer-to-Peer Lending: Earn up to 10% in returns by lending individuals, organizations and small companies who don't qualify for traditional financing through peer-to-peer lending platforms like Lending Club. You can lend $100, $1,000, or more to borrowers who meet lending platform financial standards. Like a bank, you'll earn interest on the loan - often at higher returns than banks usually get.
Quick story: Remember that $1.18 I found in the couch? Even when that increased to $30 to $50 a day, it still wasn’t enough to live on. So I looked for other options. In August 2008, after people started to know who I was and how I could help them pass the LEED certification exam through my blog, I wrote an ebook. It included all the information I knew about passing this exam, and I sold it on my blog for $19.95.

I’ve never invested in real estate (except to live in), but am always intrigued by communities like FS who seem to have such a passion for it. My intrigue stems back to my earlier comments that the long term trends in appreciation in real estate are simply not very competitive versus equities, despite what Robert Kiyosaki had to say in his book, Rich Dad, Poor Dad.

If you want to know what to do with your money, to be rich and financially secure, this is the most ccomprehensive book out there to walk you step by step to success. It's not about getting rich quick. It's about creating many baskets and collecting many eggs. As your income increases and debt is paid, you will realize how much fun it is to watch your money grow. It's even more fun than spending money. You have to start somewhere, might as well start with this book.
I prefer assets that make me a high return for the lowest amount of work possible (semi-passive involvement). And assets that pay me in several unique ways. Cash flow is only one way RE makes money for me. I also get principal reductions, appreciation, tax advantages (depreciation), and I control the rental increases on a yearly basis. Plus a majority of the capital is provided by the secondary market on 30 year fixed low interest rate debt.
The type of business you should start depends on your passion and existing skill set. If you love baking, for example, you could consider starting a home-based cake or brownie business. Love to sew? Spend your free time creating the perfect crafts, then turn around and sell them with your own Etsy store. Love dogs? Consider watching dogs out of your own home and marketing your services on a website like Rover.com.

The first time I did affiliate marketing was way back in the day on my architecture exam website. I connected with a company that sold practice exams, which gave me $22 for every person who bought one of their exams via my site. Since then, I’ve generated over $250,000 simply by recommending that product alone. Again, this is a product that was not mine, but one that has still been helpful to my audience. This was all done with thousands of visitors a month. Not millions, or even hundreds of thousands.


“The biggest surprise is real estate being second to last on my Passive Income Ranking List because I’ve written that real estate is my favorite investment class to build wealth. Real estate doesn’t stack up well against the other passive income sources due to the lack of liquidity and constant maintenance of tenants and property. The returns can be huge due to rising rental income AND principal over time, much like dividend investing. If you are a “proactive passive income earner” like myself, then real estate is great.”
I’ve built several businesses since 2008 using one or more of these models. I’ve been featured in magazines and articles across the globe, and since I started my journey I’ve generated over $5M in earnings from these businesses. All of my income and expenses for those businesses dating back to October 2008 have been tracked publicly on SPI.com. You can see 10 years of income reports here.
This one may seem simple, but that’s only because it is. If you were to move your savings from a traditional, brick-and-mortar bank with a low-interest rate and into a high-yield savings account online, over time you can make a surprising amount of extra cash. Online banks are FDIC-insured just like the traditional brick-and-mortar institutions, so your money is just as safe.
Coaching – I’ve been coaching ever since I was in college and I love it. And since I coach a club team, the time commitment averages only about 10 hours a week. The money isn’t great if you depend on it for living but it’s the perfect secondary source of income since it’s very easy for me to get hired as a coach(and it’s tax free through business deductions).
I prefer assets that make me a high return for the lowest amount of work possible (semi-passive involvement). And assets that pay me in several unique ways. Cash flow is only one way RE makes money for me. I also get principal reductions, appreciation, tax advantages (depreciation), and I control the rental increases on a yearly basis. Plus a majority of the capital is provided by the secondary market on 30 year fixed low interest rate debt.
The sky is the limit but some alternative income ideas are better than others.  Stanley and Danko in The Millionaire Next Door, are quick to point out that millionaires allocate their time, energy, and money efficiently, in ways conducive to building wealth.  That means that a millionaire is much more likely to spend Saturday mornings checking on his rental property rather than cruising garage sales looking to add to his garden gnome collection.  Robert Kiyosaki of Rich Dad Poor Dad fame likes to emphasize the benefits of a passive income.  The books aren’t exactly a prescription for wealth, but he makes two excellent points.  The first is that a stream of income that provides money when you’re sleeping is preferable to one that requires you to work.  The second is that passive income often enjoys much better tax treatment than the income from your professional work.  Here are some income streams that are fairly common among physicians:
Obviously, these are much higher than you’re going to get with most other investments. What’s more is that you can choose a plan that matches your investment strategy, whether your goal is Supplemental Income, Balanced Investing, or Long-term Growth. You can also look at different real estate projects and choose for yourself which ones to invest in.
Thanks for the great article…although I have to point out many of the items listed are not passive but active, such as selling bodily fluids, writing blogs or resumes, and collecting bottles and cans. To be truly passive, the income source must require no effort on your part (after initial setup). Real estate, dividends, P2P lending…these are truly passive income sources.
Among the various market multiples, residual income models are most closely related to the price to book value (P/B) ratio because the justified P/B is directly linked to expected future residual income. This can be seen by observing the single stage model. If ROE is greater than the required return on equity, the second term (the present value of residual income) will be positive, the market will be greater than book value, and the justified P/B ratio will be greater than one.
This is a buzzword I heard about through a few career coaches. Slowly more awareness is spreading that we can escape the rat race and find alternative ways of working, and indeed, the days of having to choose one particular career path are becoming outdated. The recession is forcing us to think of more imaginative ways to make a living and I am determined to use every skill and talent I have to start generating multiple income streams. Before I was racking my brain for YEARS because I just couldn’t choose one career path! I am only just beginning on a small scale and am not making any real money as yet, but this year I will dig out the toolboxes I’m not currently using and set up various things that will hopefully bring in the pounds. Thumbs up to multiple income streams.
It is hard to do both but you’re not supposed to. You’re supposed to get your safety net down THEN try to do high wire acrobatics above it – not set up the two at the same time. So get retirement and your emergency fund squared away, then consider the stock market (taxable) and real estate. There’s no rush! Don’t let others dictate your future because they don’t have the same priorities as you. 🙂

Real Estate Income – Since we moved up to Newport Beach, I started renting out my condo in San Diego. My monthly cash on cash return is $300(I charge $1,900 for rent and my total payments including mortgage, HOA, property tax and insurance are $1,600) but I also get back around $350 every month in principal and about a $150 tax savings per month. But even this income is inconsistent, since sometimes expenses will pop up like last month when I had to buy a new A/C for $3,000!
I like the way you have listed the ways to earn extra income and was quite surprise that you did not make mention of network marketing, which is a way to make extra income without quitting your regular, though most people view mlm as a pyramid scheme but the real pyramid scheme is a regular 9 to 5, because you can only have one president of a company at any given time and network marketing business model to promote product that can be used is really cheap to join and can offer a substantial extra income or what do you think?
If you need cash flow, and the dividend doesn’t meet your needs, sell a little appreciated stock. (or keep a CD ladder rolling and leave your stock alone). At the risk of repeating myself, whether you take cash out of your portfolio in the form of “rent”, dividend, interest, cap gain, laddered CD…., etc. The arithmetic doesn’t change. You are still taking cash out of your portfolio. I’m just pointing out that we shouldn’t let the tail wag the dog. IOW, the primary goal is to grow the long term value of your portfolio, after tax. Period. All other goals are secondary.
As can be seen from the above table, the corpus of Rs1.41 crore has been invested in a debt fund that conservatively yields around 9.75% per annum. So the idle money earns debt fund yields while a portion of the corpus is withdrawn each month for a period of 15 years till the age of 60. For simplicity, we have considered annual periods but the annual SWP of Rs.18,27,000 will translate into monthly income of around Rs1,52,250. Additionally, since the withdrawal is structured as an SWP, the capital gains tax will only apply on the return portion and not on the principal portion which makes this method a lot more popular and tax efficient.

The craziest part of this was I’d wake up in the morning and there would be more money in my bank account, from people who had bought my book overnight. When you think about it, an online store that sells something that’s digital is something that’s open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. Using tools, software and systems, you can automate the delivery process so you literally don’t have to do anything to serve that audience. That’s super powerful.
What I find most interesting is the fact that I had never considered options like LendingTree or realityshares for other income sources. Investing in property has been too much of bad luck for people that I know personally, so I am interesting in getting involved in a situation where I would have to be dealing with maintenance issues or tenants. There are services for you to do that, but I had not come across any that didn’t eat most if not all of the earnings. Then again, I live in the NY area. Investing in the midwest would not be reasonably possible for me, directly, but reading about realityshares is something I am going to look into further. That might be a real possibility.
If you watched the video, he goes into a discussion about shocks (about 8 minutes in) like bad investments but how they don't really matter as much if r (rate of return) is greater than g, the rate of economic growth. If r = 5% and g = 1%, then you can lose 80% (the difference) and still be ahead because the return on the remaining 20% has paced with economic growth.

It is interesting to note that these models, like EVA and MVA, usually apply the concept of residual income to the measurement of managerial effectiveness and executive compensation. However, for the exam we're most interested in the equity valuation applications of residual income models. Residual income models have also been proposed as a method to measure goodwill impairment.
However, when you lack the money, you need time. You'll need to invest the upfront time now in order to reap the benefits of automatic income later. It just doesn't happen overnight. So don't expect it to. However, you can do this without quitting your day job. All it takes is some sincere effort over a consistent period, and voila! But, to get there, you'll need to consistently burn the midnight oil or get up at the crack of dawn. Your choice.
When I started building my architecture-related business in 2008, I made my first dollar through advertising. I’d spent a lot of time and money building the site and getting traffic. Then one day I threw an ad on the site one day, and I made $1.18. Sure, I could find that much under my couch cushions—but that’s not the point! The point is that I was able to build something online, put an ad up, and make money without having to do anything. I learned it was possible, and it motivated me to move forward.
The residual income approach offers both positives and negatives when compared to the more often used dividend discount and DCF methods. On the plus side, residual income models make use of data readily available from a firm's financial statements and can be used well with firms who do not pay dividends or do not generate positive free cash flow. Most importantly, as we discussed earlier, residual income models look at the economic profitability of a firm rather than just its accounting profitability. The biggest drawback of the residual income method is the fact that it relies so heavily on forward-looking estimates of a firm's financial statements, leaving forecasts vulnerable to psychological biases or historic misrepresentation of a firms financial statements.
Hi there. I am new here, I live in Norway, and I am working my way to FI. I am 43 years now and started way to late….. It just came to my mind for real 2,5years ago after having read Mr Moneymoustache`s blog. Fortunately I have been good with money before also so my starting point has been good. I was smart enough to buy a rental apartment 18years ago, with only 12000$ in my pocket to invest which was 1/10 of the price of the property. I actually just sold it as the ROI (I think its the right word for it) was coming down to nothing really. If I took the rent, subtracted the monthly costs and also subtracted what a loan would cost me, and after that subtracted tax the following numbers appeared: The sales value of the apartment after tax was around 300000$ and the sum I would have left every year on the rent was 3750$……..Ok it was payed down so the real numbers were higher, but that is incredibly low returns. It was located in Oslo the capital of Norway, so the price rise have been tremendous the late 18 years. I am all for stocks now. I know they also are priced high at the moment which my 53% return since December 2016 also shows……..The only reason this apartment was the right decision 18 years ago, was the big leverage and the tremendous price growth. It was right then, but it does not have to be right now to do the same. For the stocks I run a very easy in / out of the marked rule, which would give you better sleep, and also historically better rates of return, but more important lower volatility on you portfolio. Try out for yourself the following: Sell the S&P 500 when it is performing under its 365days average, and buy when it crosses over. I do not use the s&P 500 but the obx index in Norway. Even if you calculate in the cost of selling and buying including the spread of the product I am using the results are amazing. I have run through all the data thoroughly since 1983, and the result was that the index gave 44x the investment and the investment in the index gives 77x the investment in this timeframe. The most important findings though is what it means to you when you start withdrawing principal, as you will not experience all the big dips and therefore do not destroy your principal withdrawing through those dips. I hav all the graphs and statistics for it and it really works. The “drawbacks” is that during good times like from 2009 til today you will fall a little short of the index because of some “false” out indications, but who cares when your portfolio return in 2008 was 0% instead of -55%…….To give a little during good times costs so little in comparison to the return you get in the bad times. All is of course done from an account where you do not get taxed for selling and buying as long as you dont withdraw anything.
Residual income valuation (RIV; also, residual income model and residual income method, RIM) is an approach to equity valuation that formally accounts for the cost of equity capital. Here, "residual" means in excess of any opportunity costs measured relative to the book value of shareholders' equity; residual income (RI) is then the income generated by a firm after accounting for the true cost of capital. The approach is largely analogous to the EVA/MVA based approach, with similar logic and advantages. Residual Income valuation has its origins in Edwards & Bell (1961), Peasnell (1982), and Ohlson (1995).[1]
Investing in coins and collectibles: Buffalo nickels and Spiderman comic books are good examples of coins and collectibles that can rise in value, and thus offer opportunity for passive income investors. You'll need to get up to speed on the value of any coin or collectible under consideration, but once you do so, you're on the way to price appreciation on a commodity you'll be paying a lower price to buy, and will garner a higher price when you sell.

One of the benefits of the time we live in is all the software and technology we have available. If you want to scale a business that’s bigger than yourself, you’re going to need systems in place to get you there. These systems should involve automating as much as you can. The less involvement of you in the day-to-day means you have time to focus on the big picture strategies that help your business grow. 

Investing in real estate: Investing in real estate offers more passive income cash potential - but more risk - than investing in stocks or bonds. You'll need substantial amounts of cash to invest in buying a home -- it usually takes 20% down to land a good home mortgage loan. But history shows that home prices usually rise over time, so buying home a for $200,000 and selling it for $250,000 over a five-year time period, for example, is a reasonable expectation when investing in real estate.

Thanks for the great article…although I have to point out many of the items listed are not passive but active, such as selling bodily fluids, writing blogs or resumes, and collecting bottles and cans. To be truly passive, the income source must require no effort on your part (after initial setup). Real estate, dividends, P2P lending…these are truly passive income sources.
As can be seen from the above table, from the age of 45 onwards you are able to create a big source of additional income by just planning and investing Rs10,000 per month in equity SIP today. That is how simple it is to create a regular stream income by planning early. Of course, we do not know which stocks will give high dividend yields at that point in time so we have considered the quality high dividend stocks at this point in time. Above all, this approach is also tax efficient as you only have to pay 10% tax on dividends above Rs.1 million in a fiscal year.
The biggest surprise is real estate being second to last on my Passive Income Ranking List because I’ve written that real estate is my favorite investment class to build wealth. Physical real estate doesn’t stack up well against the other passive income sources due to the lack of liquidity and constant maintenance of tenants and property. The returns can be huge due to rising rental income AND principal over time, much like dividend investing. If you are a “proactive passive income earner” like myself, then real estate is great.

My returns are based on full cash purchase of the properties, as it is hard to compare the attractiveness of properties at different price ranges when only calculating down payment or properties that need very little rehab/updates. I did think about the scores assigned to each factor, but I believe tax deductions are a SIGNIFICANT factor when comparing passive income steams.


Let’s say a company earns $1 a share and pays out 75 cents in the form of a dividend. That’s a 75% dividend payout ratio. Let’s say the next year the company earns $2 a share and pays out $1 in the form of dividends. Although the dividend payout ratio declines to 50%, due the company wanting to spend more CAPEX on expansion, at least the absolute dividend amount increases.
Reality Two: You have a limited amount of time on this planet to implement your business plans and strategies, while also trying to balance the needs of family, health, spirituality, recreation, relationships, and much more. Do you really want to spend your limited time nursing more than one stream of income? Happiness has more to do with balancing life than making tons of money.
Great ideas here, and thanks for the link! I’m definitely interested in learning about using an Ebay store, although I’ve heard they are not as effective as they used to be. One interesting problem that arises though is with online work, that is, work performed via the internet. If one does not reside in one’s home country while doing it it might be considered illegal (so check on all those tax implications).

Many people talk about passive income and create the impression that you never have to do anything to keep that income going. The truth is that you will normally have to keep your eye on things if you want it to run smoothly. For example Richard Branson doesn’t run any of the 400+ companies he started but he goes over the numbers each day to make sure they’re performing well and calls the CEO if there are any problems.
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