The rationale for the residual income approach is that it recognizes the cost of equity capital in the measurement of income. Accounting net income includes the cost of debt (i.e. Interest expense), but does not reflect dividends or other equity capital related funding costs. This means that accounting income may overstate returns from the perspective of equity investors, conversely, residual income explicitly deducts all capital costs.


This is a fairly new concept to me still, but I now see that multiple streams of income are definitely far better than one high income stream as you point out. I now work part time as a hospitalist. That job provides our biggest income stream, but I also work part time for an opioid treatment center, which could easily turn into a full time position if I ever needed it (the owner has told me “you always have a job here”). Additionally, my wife works full time AND she runs an airbnb room out of our home which pulls in easily 1000/month. Those combined with our investments in stocks/bonds give us 5 sources of income. In the past we relied solely on my full time work and it stressed me out knowing that at any time something could happen that could take that away from us (as you listed above). Since I started doing these other things and we diversified our income, I feel much more at ease and relaxed.
The reading is organized as follows: Section 2 develops the concept of residual income, introduces the use of residual income in valuation, and briefly presents alternative measures used in practice. Section 3 presents the residual income model and illustrates its use in valuing common stock. This section also shows practical applications, including the single-stage (constant-growth) residual income model and a multistage residual income model. Section 4 describes the relative strengths and weaknesses of residual income valuation compared to other valuation methods. Section 5 addresses accounting issues in the use of residual income valuation. The final section summarizes the reading and practice problems conclude.
However, not all of us use the time that we have wisely. In fact, we often squander it. We waste time with trivial pursuits, enthralled in things that don’t help to advance us towards our goals, or steeped in one bad habit after another, wallowing in self-pity and lamenting that there simply isn’t enough time in the day. In fact, you can tell a lot about a person by the way they use their time.
[we may view the] economic organization as a system of prize relations. Seen in the large, free enterprise is an organization of production and distribution in which individuals or family units get their real income, their "living," by selling productive power for money to "business units" or "enterprises", and buying with the money income thus obtained the direct goods and services which they consume. This view, it will be remembered, ignores for the sake of simplicity the fact that an appreciable fraction of the productive power in use at any time is not really employed in satisfying current wants but to make provision for increased want-satisfaction in the future; it treats society as it would be, or would tend to become, with progress absent, or in a “static” state.[13]
Real estate is the obvious choice if you are going to make money on your money. I personally am not at the point where I can do any of this in a meaningful way BUT my parents are and they now own a couple homes outright and are collecting income from them to power their retirement income. It makes a lot more sense for anyone that has a chunk of cash sitting in the bank and are planning on slowly drawing from it because you technically still have all that money in a property (or multiple properties) and can sell them if you really need the lump sum of cash but you’ll earn great interest payments until you do that.
If you can max out your 401k or max out your IRA and then save an additional 20%+ of your after-tax, after-retirement contribution, good things really start to happen. If one is looking for earlier financial independence, such as retiring in their 40s or early 50s, it may be a good idea to skew towards more after-tax savings and investments given one has to wait until 59.5 to withdraw from their 401k or IRA penalty-free.
Let’s say a company earns $1 a share and pays out 75 cents in the form of a dividend. That’s a 75% dividend payout ratio. Let’s say the next year the company earns $2 a share and pays out $1 in the form of dividends. Although the dividend payout ratio declines to 50%, due the company wanting to spend more CAPEX on expansion, at least the absolute dividend amount increases.
Brian had found a huge need for web design in the restaurant and food truck space. After getting tired of working with client after client, he decided to turn his service-based business into a product-based one. He made his services more standardized and productized. He eliminated all his client work and created templates and products to serve that market instead. And it’s been going great for him.

The age old argument of total return versus income has been, incorrectly imo, categorized as an either or proposition. We are going to do both. Right now I have a lot cash in an on line money market. I also have investments in 2 passive Index funds in a taxable account. We then have substantial 401ks/IRA’s which we won’t touch for at least 10 years. My wife will continue to max out her sep and we will continue to invest in the index funds although with a smaller amount. We have already factored that in. I looked at how to cut into the monthly deficit. Here is what I observed.
In equity valuation, residual income represents an economic earnings stream and valuation method for estimating the intrinsic value of a company's common stock. The residual income valuation model values a company as the sum of book value and the present value of expected future residual income. Residual income attempts to measure economic profit, which is the profit remaining after the deduction of opportunity costs for all sources of capital.
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