In this paper, I examine the idea that the residual income model is superior to the discounted cash flow model. Using a simple numerical example, I show that in a M & M world, the two approaches to valuation are equivalent. In practice, the choice between the two valuation methods will be determined by the ease with which the relevant information is available.
Haha, that is too funny. I wanted to make an app back in the day called “MyShares” (You can probably tell how I cam up with the name at the time). The idea was that I would loan out books and DVD’s and then would never get them back. Then I thought, how cool would it be if I could rent those items out and that would motivate people to bring them back. Obviously, books and DVD’s are cheap, so this isn’t the money maker. The idea that would probably make the most money would be things like tools, ATVs, etc.
The net operating income is the amount of money that has been made once all of the person’s expenses have been subtracted from it. For instance, in order for an author to determine his net operating income, he would have to deduct the costs involved in creating the book from the amount that he earned. Designing the book cover, editing the book, and publishing the book are all examples of these kinds of expenses.
Residual income valuation (RIV; also, residual income model and residual income method, RIM) is an approach to equity valuation that formally accounts for the cost of equity capital. Here, "residual" means in excess of any opportunity costs measured relative to the book value of shareholders' equity; residual income (RI) is then the income generated by a firm after accounting for the true cost of capital. The approach is largely analogous to the EVA/MVA based approach, with similar logic and advantages. Residual Income valuation has its origins in Edwards & Bell (1961), Peasnell (1982), and Ohlson (1995).[1]

This is an important concept in personal finance because banks typically use this calculation to measure the affordability of a loan. In other words, does Jim make enough money to pay his existing bills and an additional loan payment? If Jim’s RI is high, his loan application will have a greater chance of being approved. If his RI is low, he will probably get rejected for the loan immediately.


That strategy seems waaaayyyy less risky than actively picking stocks of supposedly “reliable” stocks that issue dividends, which could be cut at any time due to shifting industry trends and company performance. Dividend investing feels like an overly complex old-school way of investing that doesn’t have a very strong intellectual basis compared to index investing.

However, residual income typically has an expiration date, especially if it is being earned through a business. Effort must be continuously put into the business in order for someone to continue to receive residual income. Businesses must continue to market themselves in order to remain relevant. The best way to look at residual income in this sense is that it is a part-time job that earns full-time income.
Residual income can have two different definitions or applications. The first definition, a less common application of residual income, is the money that is left after monthly debts are paid. This calculation is particularly important when a person is seeking financing or a loan based on their income and available money to cover the additional debt. In this scenario, the residual income is calculated by this formula:
While using the residual income as the tool to add performance, the focus is to maximize the income from the project and not the increase in returns. It is also better to use residual income in the undertaking of the new project because the use of ROI will reject any potential projects. The reason for this is that ROI yields lower returns on the initial investment whereas the residual income will maximize the income and not the return on investment.
Reality Two: You have a limited amount of time on this planet to implement your business plans and strategies, while also trying to balance the needs of family, health, spirituality, recreation, relationships, and much more. Do you really want to spend your limited time nursing more than one stream of income? Happiness has more to do with balancing life than making tons of money.
However, when you lack the money, you need time. You'll need to invest the upfront time now in order to reap the benefits of automatic income later. It just doesn't happen overnight. So don't expect it to. However, you can do this without quitting your day job. All it takes is some sincere effort over a consistent period, and voila! But, to get there, you'll need to consistently burn the midnight oil or get up at the crack of dawn. Your choice.

Hi, a very useful and an informative blog. Apart from the six ideas of making a passive income i have come across another one and that is called the PAMM otherwise the Fund Management Solution offered by the Forex brokers. Here experienced traders trade on behalf of you and give you a consistent monthly return. So all you have to do is just sit and watch them trade for you. It is the best way to make a passive income but the right Forex broker is the major task.

P2P Lending ($1,440/year): I’ve lost interest in P2P lending since returns started coming down. You would think that returns would start going up with a rise in interest rates, but I’m not really seeing this yet. Prosper missed its window for IPO in 2015-16, and LendingClub is just chugging along. I hate it when people default on their debt obligations, which is why I haven’t invested large sums of money in P2P. That said, I’m still earning a respectable 7% a year in P2P, which is much better than the stock market is doing so far in 2018!


Managerial accountants define residual income as the amount of operating revenues left over from a department or investment center after the cost of capital used to generate the revenues have been paid. In other words, it’s the net operating income of a department or investment center. You can also think of it as the amount that a department’s profits exceed its minimum required return.


The phrase “passive income” has been so overused that it may provoke somewhat negative feelings. You’ve probably seen Facebook ads portraying the “laptop” lifestyle from entrepreneurs trying to sell you on one of their programs. You see what they’re offering and understand that the way they travel and make an income is through people buying their course.
Once you’ve been approved and sent your products to Amazon, simply sit back and allow them to be sold. You never have to deal with fulfillment, shipping or customers service whatsoever. All you need to do is get your products to Amazon and collect your payments. This is mostly passive, but does involve some input of your time along the way once things have been configure.
Evergreen content, which is described as that SEO content which stays relevant for a long time after its initial publication, is a good way to generate income. Comprehensive research statistics and case studies, such as social media marketing trends for the last five years, and detailed how-to guides, such as a beginners guide to using Twitter for business, are always going to be sought after people who wouldn't mind paying small amounts for access to the information.
There are plenty of viable options you can use to create passive income online, right now. You have many different choices, but my personal favorite is affiliate marketing and selling products on Amazon. I maybe spend…3 hours total a week. It’s almost 100% automated, except the fact that I am obsessed with tweaking my product page haha. I am going to give you pretty decent advice. Becoming a millionaire is so much harder if you're doing it by working a 9-5 job. Think LONG-TERM. Having a job is a great way to start making some cash flow, but you should use it to actually start a business. A job isn’t scalable. You only have 24 hours in a day. You have a limit or a cap on how much you can make with a regular 9-5 job. Having access to the internet is all you need, you can see that attention is now the new way to becoming successful. The more exposure your brand gets (whether that is from posts, social media, websites, etc) the more opportunities you have to monetize off your traffic. When you have a lot of people's attention, and you create a product, you’re likely to make a sale. This is scalable. Anything you put out on the internet compounds, continually getting more and more traffic that gives you a chance to make a sale.

If you want to really start tracking your finances, and I mean not just your spending but your investing (that's where wealth is built), give Personal Capital a look. They will give you a $20 Amazon gift card if you link up an investment account that has $1,000+. No strings. It's a cornerstone of my financial system and I think you owe yourself a look. 100% free too.
The underlying idea is that investors require a rate of return from their resources – i.e. equity – under the control of the firm's management, compensating them for their opportunity cost and accounting for the level of risk resulting. This rate of return is the cost of equity, and a formal equity cost must be subtracted from net income. Consequently, to create shareholder value, management must generate returns at least as great as this cost. Thus, although a company may report a profit on its income statement, it may actually be economically unprofitable; see Economic profit. It is thus possible that a value deemed positive using a traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) approach may be negative here. RI-based valuation is therefore a valuable complement to more traditional techniques.

A Risk Score of 10 means no risk. A Return Score of 1 means the returns are horrible compared to the risk-free rate. A Feasibility score of 10 means everybody can do it. A Liquidity Score of 1 means it’s very difficult to withdraw your money without a massive penalty. An Activity Score of 10 means you can kick back and do nothing to earn income. To make the ranking as realistic as possible, every score is relative to each other. Furthermore, the return criteria is based off trying to generate $10,000 a year in passive income.

Dividend investing is right up there for sure. You don’t have to charge $48. You can charge <$10 to boost sales. The internet has enabled so many creatives to publish their works at a low cost. People will surprise themselves if they try to create like when they were in school. The other reason why I have Creating Products edging out dividends is because of the much higher POTENTIAL to make a lot more money. For example, $20,000 a year in book sales requires $570,000 in dividend investments to replicate the same amount. Plus, there is capital risk. With book sales, there is a correlation with EFFORT, and you are not beholden to the whims of the markets.
Finally, I imagine the biggest debate with my ranking is Creating Your Own Product as the #1 passive income source. If most people have never created their own product, then it’s easy to give it a thumbs down. There won’t be much complaint about Private Equity Investing being in last place because most people are not accredited investors. But given I believe that plenty of people can create their own product if they try, pushback is inevitable because a lot of people simply don’t try!
I do agree that a few of these ideas are not bad, but for me the problem with some of these platforms has been that I’m not from the USA. So, I can’t operate there. It’s a really interesting possibility to get some extra bucks from doing what you would do either way, like shopping. One of the best projects so far that I have seen is FluzFluz. It’s simple and really easy to use for everyone who uses Uber, Amazo, or other apps. The best part of all is that you can get some passive income – not just from your own purchases, but from other people’s as well. I hope one day it will make it here to your list. I think it’s worth it to check out.
My e-product is currently in development, but I think it could reasonably bring in 1/25 of my income in the first year with minimal promotional effort. If it takes off, maybe 1/5 of my income. Building that up so that I could direct all the proceeds to paying down student loans is a great incentive. I need to focus there, but I also have a few other non-traditional digital products in mind. I need to test the market there before expending too much time or energy.
Airbnb is a concept that has only been around for a few years, but it has exploded around the globe. Airbnb allows people to travel all around the world and to stay in accommodations that are a lot less expensive than traditional hotels. They do this by staying with participating Airbnb members who rent out part of their homes to travelers. By participating in Airbnb, you can use your residence to accommodate guests and earn extra money just for renting out space in your home.

This is mostly passive once you have it all set up, but it does take a lot of work at the beginning. Real estate investing also requires occasional maintenance. Currently, we invest in a couple of rental properties and earn about $500 profit from each per month. You can read more about my rental properties at Money Smart Life - Money Tips for a Better Life: How and Why I Became a Landlord.


Building a smartphone or tablet app requires a fair amount of technical expertise, but it can pay off handsomely if successful. It doesn't have to be particularly complex or chock-full of features either; a simple one that solves a problem or is entertaining enough to attract users works fine. You never know what may suddenly become popular. For example, the minimalist game Flappy Bird was such a craze that at one point its developer was earning $50,000 dollars a day through in-app advertising. Of course, expecting a success like that is foolhardy, but one can always hope.
Looking for ways to build financial wealth long-term without adding more work to your daily life? Residual income allows you to increase your fortune passively — meaning you’re earning cash while you eat, sleep, and brush your teeth. With the substantial increase of online platforms and opportunities, residual income is easier to achieve than ever before.
The most underrated thing and the BEST part to me is; that hard earned traffic is given to you for FREE, people already know about Amazon, but people don't know about your website/blog/etc. There's easier ways to get more exposure with your product. You can rank your product on page 1 pretty easy and doing so will make your product viewed by hundreds of thousands of purchase ready customers. I started with little experience and I'm pulling it off, I'm sure you can do this too. If your interested I can show you how to start an Amazon business, and what I personally do to grow it. https://youtu.be/YVmbeyGObAk
Typically, the above formula will be applied such that the company is assumed to achieve maturity, or "constant growth". (Note that the value will remain identical: the adjustment is a "telescoping" device). Here, analysts commonly employ the Perpetuity Growth Model to calculate the corresponding terminal value[3] (although various, more formal approaches are also applied[4]). Then, assuming long-run, "constant", growth {\displaystyle g} from year {\displaystyle m} , the terminal value is
Real Estate Crowdfunding ($9,600/year): Once I sold my SF rental, it was natural to reinvest some of the proceeds into real estate crowdfunding to keep sector exposure. I didn’t invest a lot in some of my favorite REITs because I felt a rising interest rate environment would be a stronger headwind for REITs. But if I could be more surgical with my real estate investments by identifying specific investments in stronger employment growth markets, I thought I could do better.
Launching a side business or figuring out how to invest your money when you’re strapped for time isn’t easy, but the payoff makes it all worthwhile. The money you earn from passive income will undoubtedly have you well on your way to achieving your financial goals and that much closer to true financial freedom. If you’re wondering how your finances currently stack up, find out where you stand financially. No matter the result, Turbo’s personalized advice will help get you where you want to be.
When most people think of investing opportunities, they think of stocks, bonds, and precious metals. While these are still some of the most common ways to invest, the platforms have evolved, and there are more options than ever. Gone are the days of mountains of paperwork, high brokerage fees and unattainable account minimums. Now you can invest on your own terms.
Depending on how hard you work to recruit others, you can earn a little or a lot. But you must put in the effort before you can reap the reward. Use the following link to watch a short introductory video and sign up. You will be given an option to either click “User” or “Advertiser” when you follow the link below. Most people will choose “User”. Good luck!
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Passive income is defined by Wikipedia as “income resulting from cash flow received on a regular basis, requiring minimal to no effort by the recipient to maintain it”. And while the ‘no effort’ part of the definition is very enticing, the truth is that generating passive income requires a massive amount of effort. And this effort needs to be exerted up front and then sustained for months, and maybe even years, until your venture starts returning profits. And even then, you'll have to monitor your income streams to make sure it’s all going smoothly. It's certainly not an easy endeavour, no matter what most people may tell you, and it requires an investment of something far more valuable than money: time. But if you are up for it, then here are 14 ideas that you can use to start earning passive income.
It’s my only property. I”m living in an SF rental and biding my time for a correction to buy again (maybe). One other thing I do like about the house is that there is dry powder in it that I’m paying zero interest on and can pull out to buy another house. I don’t know a lot of other ways to achieve that. I don’t have a traditional job, so the house is my only source of loans currently which I’ve been using to fund my 4-yo company.

Of course, before you start making significant money from your investment, you’ll need to invest a lot of time, some money, and incredible effort into your project or business. You’ll also need to have a lot of patience, dedication and a vision for your residual income in the future. Delayed gratification is a must when it comes to residual income.
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The obvious way to earn a second income is to get a part-time job. If you are not currently working, this is an excellent way to start as it gives you the freedom and flexibility to start other passive income opportunities.  The other option is to simply work from home full time which frees up commute time so you can focus on building more income streams.
I have a total of three CDs left. There is no way in hell I’m selling them after holding them for 4+ years so far to take the penalty. The CDs are for 7 years. That would be completely counterproductive. As a result, I feel very stuck with ever getting my CD money back if I wanted to. If the CDs were for just 1 or 2 years, I agree, it doesn’t matter as much. But combine a 7 year term with 4%+ interest is too painful to give up.
I truly believe generating $10,000 a year online can be done by anybody who is willing to dedicate at least two years to their online endeavors. Here is a snapshot of what a real blogger makes through his website and because of his website. Roughly $150,000 a year is semi-passive income followed by another $186,000 a year in active income found through his site. Check out my guide on how to start your own blog here.
Today, it isn’t enough to just build an app and expect to make millions of dollars from it. Since everyone is doing it, you’ll need to ensure you not only build something great, but that you can also get the proverbial word out. You can make money online with apps today, but it’s definitely harder than it once was, so be sure to set your expectations the right way.
Great post Jim. While it is convenient to lump the entire dividend income as one passive stream, in reality, it is several. If you have 30 companies across 10 major industry sectors, each paying you dividends, then you can consider having 30 streams or at least 10 passive streams, from each of the diverse industry sectors. I find this more diverse than relying on rental income from one investment property tied to one location and one good tenant. Your point about website is absolutely valid – will be great to have Ten Factorial Rocks worth 7 figures in less than 5 years as you have done!
Great post Jim. While it is convenient to lump the entire dividend income as one passive stream, in reality, it is several. If you have 30 companies across 10 major industry sectors, each paying you dividends, then you can consider having 30 streams or at least 10 passive streams, from each of the diverse industry sectors. I find this more diverse than relying on rental income from one investment property tied to one location and one good tenant. Your point about website is absolutely valid – will be great to have Ten Factorial Rocks worth 7 figures in less than 5 years as you have done!
But, is it worth it? Absolutely it is. Niche blogs can command vast audiences, and thus opening the opportunity to several passive income streams as you might see fit. Should you decide to sell anything to that audience, you can market a wide array of products, services and information to them. But be wary of what you promote so as not to lose their trust.

eBay Store: It’s now easier than ever to run an online eBay store. You can, of course, acquire products to resell on eBay. But you can also create an online store to market products that others are selling on eBay and share in the commissions generated by the sales. Recently I interviewed a family friend who started her own eBay store and now makes five figures from home. Check out the interview here.

With $200,000 a year in passive income, I would have enough income to provide for a family of up to four in San Francisco given we bought a modest home in 2014. Now that we have a son, I’m happy to say that $200,000 indeed does seem like enough, especially if we can win the public school lottery to avoid paying $20,000 – $50,000 a year in private school tuition.
The legendary investor, Warren Buffett rightly said that if you cannot create a second source of income by the age of 45, then you have really done injustice to yourself. If you are in business or if you are an independent consultant there are multiple streams that you can consider. But what if you are employed and your existing contract does not allow you to take up other work? Also, your pressures at your workplace may be tight enough to leave you with little spare time to worry about how to create a second stream of income. That is when you have to make money work hard for you. Let us look at two such approaches.
Buy a small business: A local small business, like a car wash or a laundromat, is a great way to put money down on a money-making venture. Automate it so you don't have to be on the premises unless you're collecting money. Go into a local business with your eyes wide open - study the books, especially on income and expenses, and examine water and utility bills if your venture will be open 24 hours.

If you’re curious about my own streams of income, I encourage you to check out my income report for an in-depth look. For now, though, I will tell you that I’m currently at twelve streams, beginning with my day job as an anesthesiologist, and ranging from crowdfunding to owning an apartment building, and to this very blog. Ultimately, having these multiple streams of income has proven to be invaluable to me–not only because of monetary value but because they allow me to live the life I want, and I feel I have a hedge against whatever the future might throw at me.

The trial court ruled in Karen’s favor and signed a proposed divorce decree that had been drafted up by Brad’s attorney. Neither party appealed the decree. After the divorce, however, Karen’s monthly income began to progressively decline. As a result, she filed a petition in July of 2007 alleging that Brad had violated the terms of the divorce decree. She also proposed an alternative argument that perhaps the divorce decree was too vague and needed to be clarified. The trial court found that the decree was, in fact, too vague, and ordered it to be clarified.
We have decided to invest in 2 ETFs, a multi asset allocation ETF (Fixed Inc, alts and div paying equities) and a preferred stock ETF. This will cover almost 45 percent of our deficit. We will be extremely diversified, can access the markets at a very low cost and the investments are liquid. On this pool of $, we have no plans to invade principal unless the investment grows by 20 percent, which we think is unlikely given the characteristics of the investments.
With $200,000 a year in passive income, I would have enough income to provide for a family of up to four in San Francisco given we bought a modest home in 2014. Now that we have a son, I’m happy to say that $200,000 indeed does seem like enough, especially if we can win the public school lottery to avoid paying $20,000 – $50,000 a year in private school tuition.

You are also free to choose a fund that is based on any index that you want. For example, there are index funds set up for just about every market sector there is — energy, precious metals, banking, emerging markets — you name it. All you have to do is decide that you want to participate, then contribute money and sit back and relax. Your stock portfolio will then be on automatic pilot.
P2P Lending ($1,440/year): I’ve lost interest in P2P lending since returns started coming down. You would think that returns would start going up with a rise in interest rates, but I’m not really seeing this yet. Prosper missed its window for IPO in 2015-16, and LendingClub is just chugging along. I hate it when people default on their debt obligations, which is why I haven’t invested large sums of money in P2P. That said, I’m still earning a respectable 7% a year in P2P, which is much better than the stock market is doing so far in 2018!
I love real estate investing, but it requires a lot of upfront capital plus you are going to have to learn to love your tenants (see point 6 below)! Crowdfunded real estate investing gives you a way to still invest in the real estate market, without having to necessarily put in a lot of money upfront. It’s definitely a much more passive investment than owning a flat or a house!
I’ve never invested in real estate (except to live in), but am always intrigued by communities like FS who seem to have such a passion for it. My intrigue stems back to my earlier comments that the long term trends in appreciation in real estate are simply not very competitive versus equities, despite what Robert Kiyosaki had to say in his book, Rich Dad, Poor Dad.
Hi Logan, thanks for perfect article on passive income theme! I am a newbie in this passive income thing but everything I read here seems obvious to me. Why not create a passive income, right? So I started googling about making passive income via internet because I like things connected to the web and I think that this will be a huge thing (it already is) and I found this article which seems that is probably very new but in the ebook there are great informations about passive income, at least in my POV (newbie POV). Is this a legit website or can it actually work? I want to expand on that because my 9 – 5 s*cks… Here is the URL: https://cashwithoutjob.online
My advice is that you use some sort of marketing (Facebook Ads, PPC, Instagram stories, etc) to keep your sales growing and healthy. Also there is a free extension called "Keywords Everywhere" and it gives you the exact amount of search volume certain keywords have so I definitely recommend you check that out on Chrome Web Store it's pretty accurate. In order to win you need to stand out with your product: so pick a color and or new feature by contacting your supplier and modifying something to your product so you aren't selling the exact same product everyone else is. This will easily help you make more impressions and sales just with that alone. Slapping your own powerful logo on your product (Tip: Don’t worry, it’s extremely easy to do this, you can outsource a logo for like $5 on Fiverr) is going to make you look like a very professional and credible seller giving you access to 1000’s of sales in a month. Amazon isn’t a gimmick, get started now and don't wait! I have a complete guide for beginners explaining everything simply and giving my personal tips for you to grow your own business. You can rank your product on page 1 pretty easy and doing so will make your product viewed by hundreds of thousands of purchase ready customers. I strongly recommend if you're picking a product on Amazon to sell that you make sure it has steady search volume and has actual demand. You can't sell any product if no one is searching for it (No demand). (TIP: you can use google keyword planner / trends to see products that are trending.) Amazon isn’t a gimmick, get started now and don't wait! It's not saturated despite what people say. This takes work, so if you're willing to work at this then this will replace full time income. If you have any questions feel free to ask, I am a wealth of information on this topic. Anyone who isn’t jumping on this opportunity is losing out. You need to get started as soon as possible.
Passive income is the Holy Grail for online marketers. It's automatic. Effortless. But, not at first. In the beginning, it's grueling. I liken this to doing the most amount of work for the least initial return. However, over time, as your passive income begins to increase, your reliance on an active income plummets. That's when the real magic starts to happen.
I would throw in some caution here: if your spouse works at the same company, or in the same industry as you, you are not diversified, and should something happen, you could be in a world of hurt.  Companies do go out of business, companies do lay employees off.  There is nothing wrong with working together, but realize that you are not diversified and you should be trying to maximize other income streams as a result.

Affiliate and referral marketing involves driving sales for another business which then pays you a commission for each sale it acquires through your efforts. The Amazon Associates affiliate marketing program is one of the best options for people looking to earn money this way. You need set up a website with outbound links redirecting to products on Amazon (or another site that offers affiliate programs) and if a visitor from your site buys the product, then that business pays you a share of the amount spent.
In equity valuation, residual income represents an economic earnings stream and valuation method for estimating the intrinsic value of a company's common stock. The residual income valuation model values a company as the sum of book value and the present value of expected future residual income. Residual income attempts to measure economic profit, which is the profit remaining after the deduction of opportunity costs for all sources of capital.
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