Recently, the residual income (RI) model has become very popular in valuation because it purports to measure "value added" by explicitly taking into account the cost for capital in the income statement. Some proponents of the residual income approach have even suggested that the RI model is superior to the discounted cash flow (DCF) method and consequently, the DCF model should be abandoned in favor of the RI model. The residual income model is seductive because it purports to provide assessments of performance at any given point in time. The claim that the RI model is superior to the DCF model in valuation is puzzling because the RI model is simply an interesting algebraic rearrangement of the DCF model. Since the same information is used in both models, it is not unexpected that both models should give the same valuation results.
What if there was a way for you to effectively make money while you sleep? Sounds like a dream come true, right? Even for the biggest workaholics, there are only so many hours in a day. If only you could get paid multiple times for something you did once—that’s exactly how passive income works! Thanks to technology, the potential to create multiple income streams is even easier than ever before. We’re no longer held back by the limitations of a traditional 9-to-5 job, and financial freedom is at our fingertips. Even if you already work a full-time job you can still improve your financial health with passive income.
I’ve got a $185,000 CD generating 3% interest coming due. Although the return is low, it’s guaranteed. The CD gave me the confidence to investment more aggressively in risk over the years. My online interest income has come down since I aggressively deployed some capital at the beginning of the year and again during the February market correction. You’ll see these figures in my quarterly investment income update.
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Thanks for the great article…although I have to point out many of the items listed are not passive but active, such as selling bodily fluids, writing blogs or resumes, and collecting bottles and cans. To be truly passive, the income source must require no effort on your part (after initial setup). Real estate, dividends, P2P lending…these are truly passive income sources.
So, it’s like the 7 Deadly (S)Incomes? Ha. Bad joke. I never really thought to count them up or even name them but I’m a big fan of having multiple streams of income. Let me count. 1) Earned income (freelance pharmaceutical copywriter) 2) Royalty income (published book) 3) Interest income (savings accounts) 4) Business income (my personal finance blog) 5) Pension beneficiary (RIP daddy) Crap. Only five and only 1 that pays anything substantial. Hmmmm. Time to brainstorm. Thanks, Doc.
Nice list. What keeps my family from getting more streams is the time it takes. I would actually be willing to work part time in medicine and make less money with a side-hustle just to keep things fresh and prevent burnout. That requires some degree of FI and some time to read about the new endeavor. Maybe when my kids are both in school, we we see. Until then, I’ll keep reading your posts for ideas.
I agree mostly with the real estate advice. I’m looking for ways to take advantage of the condo I own to get up the rent from ~$0.90/ft to the $1.2-1.5/ft that seems more like the range in the same area. I’d have to put in a bit of capital (probably 10k on the low end for just the basics up to 40k if I wanted to remodel the kitchen and 2 bathrooms up to par with the area), so the return is likely there if those upgrades warrant $1.30/ft (given the unit is larger than most 2br/2ba in the area).
Well written piece, but I question the core premise. Why the fascination with maximizing “income” (passive or otherwise). Shouldn’t the goal simply be to maximize long-term after tax growth of your entire portfolio? If this takes the form of dividend paying stocks, so be it. But what if small caps are poised to outperform? What if you want to take Buffet’s or Bogle’s advice and just buy a broad market index like the S&P 500, (no matter what the dividend because you’ll just have it automatically reinvested to avoid the transaction fees).

Dividends made sense 40 years ago as a relatively simple rule of thumb, but after all the work done by John Bogle with index investing, and academics with Monte Carlo sims and the 4% rule, dividend investing just isn’t the simplest, cleanest way to invest or receive passive income anymore. It’s actually significantly more risky compared to index investing, because dividend companies are a much smaller share of the total global economy compared to the broader indices.
Personal residual income, often called discretionary income, is the amount of income or salary left over after debt payments, like car loans and mortgages, have been paid each month. For example, Jim’s take-home pay is $3,000 a month. His mortgage payment, home equity loan, and car loan are the following respective: $1,000, $250, and $200. Using a residual income calculator, Jim would calculate his RI to be $1,550 a month. This is the amount of money he has left over after his monthly debt payments are make that he can put into savings or use to purchase new assets.

As for passive income, when I went FIRE 12 years ago now, I was totally obsessed with passive income, but for same reasons as you have mentioned I soon changed my mind. I am now obsessed with taxes and income/capital gains that does not require me to work. It is all about deferring taxes as long as possible while having enough income for lots of travel (living it up, haha). Besides rental income, my passive income includes 3 small pensions. So I am paying annual taxes on that too. Together rental and pensions are enough to live on comfortably.


I have been using,”multiple streams of income,” as my mantra during this rough patch. Being an interior designer easily translates into designing other things as well. I have been designing jewelry that is customized in price and style for different stores. I also opened an Etsy shop for my jewelry and for vintage items that I find in my treasure hunting for clients.I am bringing in an extra $1500-$3000 a month, and I am having fun! My first passion is always going to be interior design, and I am thankful for the clients I have!
There is also an idea that we should work to build a passive income asset and then sit on the beach relaxing for the rest of our lives. The truth is that most people would get extremely bored with this scenario and will be eager to find something to do. That’s why the world’s billionaires continue to work… they love what they do and it stopped being about the money a long time ago.
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