The basic idea behind this approach is that a rate of return is required by investors from their resources which are under the management of the firm, provide compensation for their opportunity cost and account for the level of risk. This rate of return is considered the cost of equity and a formal equity cost has to be subtracted from net income. Again, for creating shareholder value, management should be capable of generating returns which is at least equal to this cost. Therefore, even if the income statement of a company report a profit, it can be actually unprofitable economically. Thus, it is possible that a value may be negative in this case, even though it is positive when traditional discounted cash flow approach is applied.
Great post Jim. While it is convenient to lump the entire dividend income as one passive stream, in reality, it is several. If you have 30 companies across 10 major industry sectors, each paying you dividends, then you can consider having 30 streams or at least 10 passive streams, from each of the diverse industry sectors. I find this more diverse than relying on rental income from one investment property tied to one location and one good tenant. Your point about website is absolutely valid – will be great to have Ten Factorial Rocks worth 7 figures in less than 5 years as you have done!
Making money in addition to a regular income can have a big impact on your finances. An extra $500 per month could go a long way in paying down debt or raising your investment. Diversifying your income streams is important, especially as wage remain stagnant. You decide how you want to produce the income. Either you ‘do something’ to generate the income- this is active income such as providing a service; or the income is generated without you having to ‘do anything,’ – this is passive income such as hosting an Airbnb. Just make sure you do not place all your eggs in one basket.

I am 30 years old and am retired. Previously, I made a modest salary as an Army officer. I own three duplexes and a quadplex in central Texas (10 rental units in all), and each of the properties provide me with net rental yields in excess of 15%. The last deal is actually an infinite return as my partner paid the down payment in return for a 50/50 split on a property that would otherwise provide a net rental yield of 18%. The above net rental yields also factor in an excellent property management team who manages my properties while I pursue other investment opportunities. To date, I have never interacted with any of my tenants nor have I ever had to personally deal with any maintenance issues.
Another way for generating income passively online is to create digital-only products through Etsy, which is by far one of the largest resources for selling arts, crafts and other collectibles online. What type of digital-only products could you sell on Etsy? Think about printable framed graphics for nurseries or motivational pictures for home offices.
After employment, I think that most individuals gain income diversification through investing.  It is important to look at why we invest: because at some point we plan on using this money for something.  For most, it is saving for retirement, and the investing is done through vehicles, such as a 401(k) or IRA.  But investing is not just about stashing money away for a rainy day – that is what an emergency fund is for.  Investing is about having enough capital to generate income.
Another great idea for generating passive income is to create an online course. What can you teach others that would help them to improve in critical areas of their lives? Do you have technical skills that you’d be great at relaying? Do you have skills in the areas of web development, graphic design, finance, accounting, legal, marketing or any other field?
The first time I did affiliate marketing was way back in the day on my architecture exam website. I connected with a company that sold practice exams, which gave me $22 for every person who bought one of their exams via my site. Since then, I’ve generated over $250,000 simply by recommending that product alone. Again, this is a product that was not mine, but one that has still been helpful to my audience. This was all done with thousands of visitors a month. Not millions, or even hundreds of thousands.
Credit Card Sign-Up Bonuses – This one might not seem like a source of income but ever since I discovered how lucrative churning credit cards can be I consider it part of my income. Just last year alone, I made over $10,000 tax free in travel, cash and gift cards from various sign-ups. It’s not as simple as just signing up for a card though, it requires a lot of research and some maintenance every couple weeks.
Vanguard: Vanguard has a minimum of $50,000 and a fee of 0.3%. Rebalancing is done automatically once every quarter and tax loss harvesting is done on a client-by-client basis. We included Vanguard because clients who invest between $50,000-$500,000 have access to a team of financial advisors. Those with accounts over $500,000 will have a dedicated advisor.
This is a fairly new concept to me still, but I now see that multiple streams of income are definitely far better than one high income stream as you point out. I now work part time as a hospitalist. That job provides our biggest income stream, but I also work part time for an opioid treatment center, which could easily turn into a full time position if I ever needed it (the owner has told me “you always have a job here”). Additionally, my wife works full time AND she runs an airbnb room out of our home which pulls in easily 1000/month. Those combined with our investments in stocks/bonds give us 5 sources of income. In the past we relied solely on my full time work and it stressed me out knowing that at any time something could happen that could take that away from us (as you listed above). Since I started doing these other things and we diversified our income, I feel much more at ease and relaxed.
Wouldn’t it be nice to earn money while not working? That money is called residual, or recurring, income. It's what can happen after you put a lot of time, effort and sometimes money into a job to continue to get paid for the work months or years after it's done. (Salary jobs are part of linear income. This income is directly related to the number of hours you work. If you work 40 hours, you get paid for 40 hours of work.) Once you set up your business to earn residual income, you continue to make money while doing other things – maybe even starting a new business to generate more residual income!
Some good writing here! I am a realtor myself and frequently get in touch with clients that consider buying a realty estate a conservative of investing. I once heard of a transport company in Vienna, Austria, which focused their entire profit on buying eventually every house available in the downtown for about 80 years. That must be some of a passive income!
And, there’s no way to build up a base of subscribers like that unless you’ve been doing this for years and years. The unfortunate truth is that they profit off of your naivety. If you don’t want to have your hopes shattered, realize that you’re in this for the long haul. If you want an eventual life of leisure, able to roam the planet as a digital nomad and make absurd amounts of money online, you have to put in the sweat equity.
Some people take it automated well before the year is up. When it converts, it converts. If you target the right people and you're able to create the right message that appeals to your audience, you might just hit a home run. An automated webinar often involves the creation of a webinar funnel. That includes, not only the webinar, but also the email sequences, and possibly a self-liquidating offer, and maybe some done-for-your services and up-sells.
If you happen to have a blog that attracts a large, devoted viewer base each day, then selling branded products on it is an excellent way to make a little extra money. Things like t-shirts, posters, mugs, and bags that feature your brand name, or some witty copy that your niche may find attractive, will definitely find buyers on your site. You can also link up with affiliate marketers to drive more sales if the business seems to be working out.
To engage in email marketing, you need a list. You’ve likely heard the saying before that the money is in the list, but it’s not just through any list. You need to ensure that your list includes people that are actively interested in what you have to say and actually opted into your list. In order to do that, you need a way to generate those email signups.
eBay Store: It’s now easier than ever to run an online eBay store. You can, of course, acquire products to resell on eBay. But you can also create an online store to market products that others are selling on eBay and share in the commissions generated by the sales. Recently I interviewed a family friend who started her own eBay store and now makes five figures from home. Check out the interview here.

Another benefit of investing in rental properties is the loan pay down. If you obtain a loan to buy the property, each month your tenants are paying off part of the loan. Once the mortgage on the property has been paid off, your cash flow will increase dramatically, allowing your mediocre investment to skyrocket into a full-fledged retirement program.
There is also an idea that we should work to build a passive income asset and then sit on the beach relaxing for the rest of our lives. The truth is that most people would get extremely bored with this scenario and will be eager to find something to do. That’s why the world’s billionaires continue to work… they love what they do and it stopped being about the money a long time ago.
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